Eggplant which is also known as brinjal is widely cultivated in the whole world. In US, Australia, UK, Ireland it is known as eggplant. In south Asia, Africa, India it is known as brinjal. China is the leading producing country in the world followed by India but USA is on the seventeenth spot. Its botanical name is Solanum melongena. It is belong to solanaceae family which is also known as nightshade family. It is originated from India. It can be grow thought out the year. Its fruit is botanically classified as beery. New Jersey is the leading producing state in the USA followed by California. It is normally perennial crop but it is grown as annual crop.
It is required well drained soil which is highly contain organic matter and fertile. It can be grow with it pick production at pH of 6.5-7.5.
It can be grow warm and dry tropical and subtropical climate condition. It cannot tolerant frost. It is needed 24o C as optimum temperature in day and 20o C as optimum temperature in night. It is day neutral plant means day length is not affected to the flowering.
Season of Sowing and Harvesting
|In desert (southern desert valleys||February||April to June|
|The Northern San Joaquin valley||February||Late June|
|The southern coast or other area||July and August||October|
|The New Jersey||July to October|
|Florida||Throughout the year except in August and September|
Nursery Bed Preparation:
Eggplant mostly is grown in nursery bed and after that transplanted to the main farm. It is also grown by seeds directly to the farms. Polyethylene mulch is used on spring crop. Some growers use mulch in combination with brush paper and stakes. For controlling weed and conserve soil moisture black polyethylene mulch is used.
For prepsring seed mattress observe FYM 10 kg, neem cake 1 kg, VAM 50 g, enriched remarkable phosphate one hundred g and per rectangular meter earlier than sowing.
Mulch with black LDPE sheets of 25 micron thickness and bury each the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm.
- Prepare the nursery area of 3 % for the seedling production for 1 ha.
- Cover the nursery area with 50 % shade net.
- Make raised beds of 1 m width and convenient length.
- After that mix cocopeat@ 300 kg with neemcake @ 5 kg. and also mix Azospirillum@ 1 kg. for seedling tray 1.2 kg of cocopeat is required. And finally sow the treated seeds in seedling trays@ 1 seed per cell.
- When seeds are germinated in seedling trays, sow them individually on the raised beds inside the shade net.
For Varieties : 400 g / ha
For Hybrids : 200 g / ha
- Prepare the field and make ridges and furrows with spacing 60 cm.
- Apply irrigation after that in the furrows and transplanted 30 to 35 days old seedlings from beds to ridges.
Varieties: 60 x 60 cm
Hybrids: 90 x 60 cm.
After institution of seedlings, irrigate at weekly intervals.
- Eggplant need @ 150 to 200 (168 to 224 Kg/ha) pounds nitrogen per acre.
- Phosphorous and potassium are applied @ 80 to 120 (90 to 134 kg/ha) pounds per acre.
- Phosphorous and potassium are applied as bend application.
- Most of American verities are oblong or globular shaped and having dark purple skin.
- Japanese verities have slender and elongated shape even have dark purple skin.
- Chinese verities have long slender cylindrical shape and light purple skin.
In California, Grown Verities as under:
- American: Black Bell and Black Beauty
- Japanese: Millionaire
- Italian: Little Finger
- Little Green
30 days after transplanting seedlings; hand weeding, top dressing and earthing up etc. operations are done.
- Eggplant has perfect flowers. Flower contains male and female parts.
- Eggplant is day neutral, so that there is no effect of photo period sum on flowering.
- Eggplant is self-fertile plant. So It need not any pollinator plant.
- For fruit setting and development, it is need 35o c day temperature and 16o c night temperature.
A. Shoot & fruit borer
• Pull out the affected shoot which is showing boreholes.
• Pull out the affected fruits and destroy.
B. Flea beetle
• It is problem when plant is at younger stage.
• Collect the beetles, grubs, pupae and destroy.
E. Spider mite
a) Damping off
b) Leaf Spot
c) Little Leaf
e) Early bight
g) Tobacco Ring Spot Virus (TRSV)
Integrated Pest Management for Egg Plant
- Nursery plants and seedling are dipped for treatment of Pseudomonas @ 10 g/ lit of water
- Give soil application with Neem cake @250 kg/ha
- Planted Maize as boarder crop or as trap crop for collect and remove of whiteflies/Liriomyza.
- Use of yellow sticky traps against White flies and Liriomyza
- Collect and pull out of shoot borer infested terminals
- Leucinodes adult monitoring with pheromone traps
Harvesting And Handling:
- Harvesting is done generally after 75 to 90 days of transplanting or 15 to 35 days of flower an thesis.
- When fruits reach market size they are harvested.
- Fruits are cleaned in water bath and remove dirt and cool them.
- And after that fruits are packed.
- To reduce water loss after harvesting eggplant fruit should be cool under the shade net.
- But hydro-cooling and forced-air cooling are most effective methods.
- Eggplant do not have longer shelf life.