In this blog we will discuss on Onion Farming in India Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the 2nd most important business plants of the India which is subsequent to Potato. In the world, Onion crop is grown in about 5.30 million hectare region with an annual manufacturing of 88.48 million lots with productiveness 16.70 heaps per hectare. China stands first in the Onion manufacturing (22.61 million heaps from an place 1.03 million hectares area) in the world with productivity 21.85 lots per hectare accompanied with the aid of India. In India, Onion crop is grown in about 1.20 million hectare vicinity with an annual manufacturing of 19.40 million tons with productiveness 16.12 heaps per hectare. The volume of Onion 2415.75 thousand lots is exported from India which outputs price of 3, 10,650.09 Rs. lakhs. (Anon, 2017).
Summer /rabi Onion farming in India
Summer/ rabi Onion is more in many instances practiced for an irrigated crop, ensuing in a excessive yield with giant sized bulbs. Seedlings are first raised in the nursery. For summer/ rabi crop in India October to November is recomonded as sowing time. In Maharashtra it is transplanted at some point of November to December. (Anon, 2018).
About 10 to 12 Kg. seed is required to raise seedlings for one hectare transplanting. The seedlings are equipped for transplanting 45-60 days after sowing. Over-aged seedlings result in bolting, taking longer time to begin new growth. The spacing 15 x 10 cm. (row to plant) is recomonded for most advantageous populace and higher yield.
Onion wishes a heavy dose of fertilizers for excellent yield. However, fertilizer a requirement is relies upon upon soil kind and types etc. Completely decomposed organic manure @ 25 to 30 lots per hectare may additionally be integrated into the soil 15 days earlier than transplanting. For one hectare, 108 Kg. Urea, 312 Kg. Single amazing phosphate and 83 Kg. Murate of potash to be utilized at transplanting and once more 108 Kg. Urea to be introduced equally into two splits at 30 and forty five days after transplanting. Forty 5 days after planting, no any N containing fertilizers must be applied.
Sulphur @ forty five Kg. in the shape of Gypsum to be delivered per hectare into the soil 15 days earlier than transplanting. (Anon, 2018).
As Onion flowers are intently spaced and roots are shallow, it is vital to preserve the crop weed free, particularly 30 to forty five days from translating. Crop weed opposition is recorded to greater from transplanting until nearly forty five days, it may additionally decrease yield up to 60 percents. Therefore, Oxifluorfen (24 percent EC.) 1 to 1.25 ml. per liter of water (before two days of transplanting or inside one week after transplanting) observed via one hand weeding at 30 to 45 days after transplanting is recomonded for fantastic weed control. (Sable et al., 2014).
Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) is most unfavourable pests and Blight is extreme disorder of Onion. Spray fipronil 1.5 ml. with 1 ml. sticker per liter of water for fine manage of thrips. Spray of Mencozeb 2.5 g. per liter of water is determined to high quality to manage Onion Blight or Dithane M-45 @ three g. per liter of water is additionally determined effective. These fungicides ought to be sprayed with 1 ml. sticky label per liter of water, then again at 10 to 15 days intervals. (Anon, 2018) and Krushi Salla, Agrowone information paper, 1 March, 2018 of Maharashtra.
Globally, China, India and US are the greatest producers of onions with India being the 2nd greatest producer of onion. Indian onions have two crop cycles with the first onion harvesting at some stage in November to January months and 2nd in the course of January to May months. Hence, onion is reachable during the 12 months in India.
Information on Onion
Botanical title for onion is Allium cepa– belonging to Liliaceae family. Its closest loved ones are shallots, garlic and leeks. It is a bulbous plant with the bulbs being delivered every year. The leaves are semi-round and hollow or cylindrical in structure. They have a waxy covering on a superficial level and rise out of an underground bulb that bears short, stretched roots. The stem develops upto 200 cm in stature. Flowers show up at the tip of the stem and are greenish-white in color. The bulb has countless layers of overlapping surfaces round a central core and it can extend upto 10 cm in diameter.
Ideal Conditions for Onion Cultivation
Onion desires a temperate climate and alluvial soil to develop in. Depending on the onion developing time and vicinity of cultivation, onion can be grown as lengthy day onions (for plains) or quick day onions (ideal for hilly regions).